Notes
Introduction: Claiming Space, Making Race
1. The first generation refers to adult immigrants; the 1.5 generation
generally refers to individuals immigrating before the age of thirteen;
and the second generation is the first United States–born generation.
2. My cohost was Samip Mallick at the University of Chicago. The par-
ticipants included MC Abstract/Vision and DJ Ali, MC Kabir, MC Chee
Malabar, DJ Rekha, and the United States debut of the Malayali hip hop
group from Malaysia, Yogi B and Natchatra, featuring Yogi B, MC Jesz,
and Dr. Burn. See the Hiphopistan Web site, http://hiphopistan.uchicago
.edu. And see YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) “AAS Roundtable”
Parts 1–4 for the panel presentation, which was co- chaired by Bakari Kit-
wana and me.
3. The artist MC Rawj now goes by his proper name, Roger.
4. D’Lo, who identified as gay and later as a male, prefers to disrupt
gender pronouns “he” and “she” in order to remind others of the flexi-
bility of gendered identities. I agree with disrupting naturalized links be-
tween gender and sex, and for purposes of clarity in my references to
D’Lo, I will refer to D’Lo by the pronouns “s/he” and “his/her.”
5. Bella goes by the name Deejay Bella; in other references to individu-
als who spin records, I refer to them through the alternate spelling, “DJ.”
6. Dandia raas is a traditional Gujarati stick dance performed on Nav-
ratri, a celebration of the god Rama and the goddess Durga.
7. Segmented assimilation addresses the influences of Black and White
Americans on second- generation immigrants by describing how a range
of variables (skin color, socioeconomic status, access to a strong ethnic
network) leads to “upward,” “linear,” or “downward” pathways of as-
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