1. For vari ous perspectives on social history “from the bottom up” and the “New
Labor History,” see Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the
American Historical Profession (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); David
Brody, “The Old Labor and the New: In Search of an American Working Class,” Labor
History 20:1 (Winter 1979): 11–126; Leon Fink, “John R. Commons, Herbert Gutman,
and the Burden of Labor History,” Labor History 29:3 (1988): 313–322.
2. Leon Fink et al., eds., Workers across the Amer i cas: The Transnational Turn in Labor
History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011); Marcel van der Linden, Workers of
the World: Essays toward a Global Labor History (Boston: Brill, 2008).
3. Robert A. Orsi, The Madonna of One Hundred and Fifteenth Street: Faith and Com-
munity in Italian Harlem, 1880–1950 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985).
Peter N. Stearns and Jan Lewis, eds., An Emotional History of the United States (New
York: New York University Press, 1998) contains suggestive essays dealing with the
emotional lives of common people. Susan J. Matt and Peter N. Stearns, “Introduction,”
in Susan J. Matt and Peter N. Stearns, eds., Doing Emotions History (Urbana: University
of Illinois Press, 2014), 1–13, briefly maps the issues and history of the ﬁeld. William M.
Reddy, The Navigation of Feeling: A Framework for the History of Emotions (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2001), though focused primarily on French elites, dis-
cusses the theory and implications of such research.
4. The seminal work is David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the
Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991). The prob lem of social dif-
ference, and especially race relations and racial identity, in working- class experience has
been a concern throughout my career and is reflected in most of the essays presented
5. This theme is developed more fully in James R. Barrett, The Irish Way: Becoming
American in the Multi- Ethnic City (New York: Penguin, 2012).
6. Michael K. Rosenow, Death and Dying in the Working Class, 1865–1920 (Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 2015).