1 See Hartley, Mediaeval Costume and Life, who catego-
rizes Tobit here as an invalid and comments on the mod-
ern look of the medieval invalid’s setting (128, 130).
2 Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe, 251. See also Serres:
“We are always simultaneously making gestures that are
archaic, modern, and futuristic” (Conversations on Sci-
ence, Culture, and Time, 60).
3 Fradenburg, Sacrifice Your Love, 56; “‘So That We May
Speak of Them,’” 209, on “the importance of passion to
rigorous practices of knowledge.” See also Prendergast
and Trigg, “What Is Happening to the Middle Ages?”
esp. 224–26.
4 See Barnet and Wu, The Cloisters, 15, 19.
5 Hoving, King of the Confessors, 56, 58. The recent reno-
vation brings out the temporal heterogeneity even fur-
ther: replacement stones had to be “medievalized,”
of course, made to look as if they had weathered in a
thirteenth- century Normandy garden, but replacement
mortar had to be made to look as if it were a 1930s imi-
tation of the medieval; see Eve M. Kahn, “Cloisters Un-
veiled,” Traditional Building, April 2006. http://www
.traditional- Issues- 06/April
6 Geary, “What Happened to Latin?” 872, 861, 873.
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