1 See Hartley, Mediaeval Costume and Life, who catego-
rizes Tobit here as an invalid and comments on the mod-
ern look of the medieval invalid’s setting (128, 130).
2 Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe, 251. See also Serres:
“We are always simultaneously making gestures that are
archaic, modern, and futuristic” (Conversations on Sci-
ence, Culture, and Time, 60).
3 Fradenburg, Sacriﬁce Your Love, 56; “‘So That We May
Speak of Them,’” 209, on “the importance of passion to
rigorous practices of knowledge.” See also Prendergast
and Trigg, “What Is Happening to the Middle Ages?”
4 See Barnet and Wu, The Cloisters, 15, 19.
5 Hoving, King of the Confessors, 56, 58. The recent reno-
vation brings out the temporal heterogeneity even fur-
ther: replacement stones had to be “medievalized,”
of course, made to look as if they had weathered in a
thirteenth- century Normandy garden, but replacement
mortar had to be made to look as if it were a 1930s imi-
tation of the medieval; see Eve M. Kahn, “Cloisters Un-
veiled,” Traditional Building, April 2006. http://www
.traditional- building.com/Previous- Issues- 06/April
6 Geary, “What Happened to Latin?” 872, 861, 873.