1 Diversity and Philanthropy
1 Since the start of the Gates scholarship program, the over-thirty-year-old Organiza-
tion of Chinese Americans has replaced the Advisory Committee in its support role
for the United Negro College Fund.
2 Against convention, I employ ‘‘her’’ and other feminine references as the universal
gender and reserve masculine references for specific reference to males. If gender has
become culturally arbitrary, the reader should become accustomed to the rule devia-
tion by the book’s end.
3 I conducted the forty-five interviews in the spring and summer of 1997, five years
after the 1992 Los Angeles riots and four years before the September 11th destruction
of the New York City World Trade Center. Each interview began with a structured
segment, in which I asked interviewees to recall their organization’s internal struc-
ture of authority, personnel composition, grant-making process, and racial/ethnic
priorities. I recruited grantees in a less systematic fashion, inviting the directors of
major local organizations with ethnoracial missions or clients. To grantees, I addi-
tionally asked about the quality of their relationship with the foundation. I asked all
of my subjects to describe any changes they had experienced over the length of their
association with the foundation. The interviews concluded with a more open-ended
segment that covered the topics of their personal background; life history milestones;
personal contributions to the foundation, organized philanthropy, and/or the non-
profit sector more generally; advice they would give nonprofits and foundations; and
the state of local racial and ethnic relations since the start of their association or
4 This expression was the uno≈cial motto of U.C. Berkeley during Chang-Lin Tien’s
tenure as its chancellor, 1991–1997 (Tien 1998).
5 Intermarriage, however, should not be confused with miscegenation or ‘‘race mix-
ing,’’ which has a longer history in North America than the legality of interracial
marriages. Because a high proportion of the African American parents of biracial
children have ‘‘White blood,’’ both parents and children are quite conceivably already
multiracial in their ancestry (Spencer 1999).