social and imaginary changes 209
Spring and also in other Third World countries. How do you see the different
reactions to most economic problems? Some of these movements are quite
spectacular, and sometimes the media present them as spectacles of freedom
and as if there were a connection across the different countries and cultures,
as also happened in 1968.
ngc: Yes, but the geopolitical situation is different. In 1968 we still lived in a
Euro- American world.
When the Berlin Wall came down several years after 1968, it was thought
to be a world event. The meaning of the student struggles in France, Germany,
Berkeley, and Mexico were very different from the struggles of the Arab stu-
dents or the Chilean students, which were different from each other as well.
They nevertheless have points of convergence in the current geopolitical con-
juncture: in this second decade of the twenty- ﬁrst century neoliberal thought,
normalized on a worldwide scale, has deteriorated, and in several regions it
has been seen that not only another world is possible but that many worlds and
forms of social organization are possible, as are different relations between
men and women, between technology, territory, and investments. This decen-
tered multifocality is what is interesting to me because it changes the terms
of explanation and interpretation and discredits geopolitical predominance. It
also leaves behind the attempt to restore Marxism and simple postcolonialism
without the more complex interpretations of colonization, or the return to
socialist and communist regimes of the past.
tm: I remember well that lasa Convention in 2001 when a discursive shift
was taking place from postmodernism to globalization. In this past decade we
have witnessed a change in papers given at conferences: from postmodernism
to another worldview and to the cultural differences in globalization. When
you speak of this sense of a fractured future, in which different social move-
ments emerge, is this a return to postmodernism or a combination of imagined
globalization and postmodernism?
ngc: Neither of the two. I don’t think postmodernism will ever return. We can
discern in postmodern thought, with its impact on philosophy, architecture,
art, and painting, a way of taking to extremes the contradictions of moder-
nity and the de- authorization of the claims of certain modern movements to
developing a unilinear history. It was productive so long as it questioned a
unilinear philosophy of history that was to culminate in a single point. We ben-
eﬁted from thinking in terms of fragmentation and the de- concentration of the
world, and in this regard postmodernism was a foretaste of globalization or a