n o t e s
1. For some of the canonical scholarship on the Harlem Renaissance that discusses
the meanings of whites traveling into Harlem, see David Levering Lewis, When
Harlem Was in Vogue (New York: Vintage, 1982); Nathan Irvin Huggins, Harlem
Renaissance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971).
2. “The Vogue,” report, 25 January 1917, Box 31, Committee of Fourteen Records,
1905–32, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, New York Public Library, New
York (hereafter cited as C14, nypl).
3. See, for example, Huggins, Harlem Renaissance; Lewis, When Harlem Was in
Vogue; Lewis A. Erenberg, Steppin’ Out: New York Nightlife and the Transfor-
mation of American Culture, 1890–1930 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1981); Ann
Douglas, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York: Noon-
day, 1995); Mark Robert Schneider, African Americans in the Jazz Age (Lanham,
MD: Rowman and Littleﬁeld, 2006); Marlon B. Ross, Manning the Race: Reform-
ing Black Men in the Jim Crow Era (New York: New York University Press, 2004).
This is also evident in earlier work, such as James Johnson, Black Manhattan
(New York: Knopf, 1930); and George S. Schuyler, Black and Conservative (New
Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1966).
4. See Bill V. Mullen, Afro- Orientalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 2004); Daniel Kim, Writing Manhood in Black and Yellow: Ralph Ellison,
Frank Chin, and the Literary Politics of Identity (Stanford, CA: Stanford Univer-
sity Press, 2005); Heike Raphael- Hernandez and Shannon Steen, AfroAsian En-
counters: Culture, History, Politics (New York: New York University Press, 2006);
Helen H. Jun, “Black Orientalism: Nineteenth- Century Narratives of Race and
U.S. Citizenship,” American Quarterly 58 (June 2006): 1047–66; Scott Kurashige,
The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of
Multiethnic Los Angeles (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010). Vijay
Prashad stands apart from this scholarship in that he does look beyond U.S.
borders for racial meaning making. For instance, he examines connections be-