1 I will use the term Andean to refer to those of indigenous descent, as an equivalent
of the colonial category indio. Spaniard here refers to those of European descent,
whether born in Spain (peninsulares) or Peru (criollos). A distinction between the
latter two categories will be made clear where relevant.
2 His idea that the seminary repertoire reflects an ‘‘American manner’’—a manner
that nevertheless leaves no traces, it would appear—is derived from Seoane and
Eichmann 1993, a work which has been e√ectively critiqued by Bernardo Illari
(2001, 106–7). The risks of nationalist influence on musicological research are
evident in these studies, which are infiltrated and distorted by the politically
correct discourse of mestizaje. One of Illari’s important contributions has been to
shift the focus of attention from an imagined mestizaje to the much more real
criollismo that underpinned much of the cultural production by Hispanic institu-
tions in the Andean region.
3 Despite the analytical problems mentioned above, Quezada Macchiavello’s cata-
logue is the most thorough to date, and his numbering system will be used here.
4 The adc was renamed the Archivo Regional del Cuzco shortly before the publica-
tion of this book.
5 Transcriptions of various notarial records of relevance to this study can be ac-
cessed at my professional Web site (√/Geo√reyBaker
one The Urban Soundscape
1 The description comes from an early seventeenth-century document in the Bibli-
oteca Nacional in Madrid, Chapter xxii, ‘‘Del viaje del Visorey hasta el Cuzco y
recibimiento que se le hizo.’’ All translations are by the author unless otherwise
2 General studies of colonial urban history, such as Hoberman and Socolow 1986
and Kinsbruner 2005, have devoted little or no attention to music or musicians,
despite their discussion of an array of social actors.
3 The close link between music, education, and the imposition of policía is made
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