his book began as a doctoral dissertation at New York University.
My greatest debt is to my adviser, Warren Dean, who left an
example of scholarship and pedagogy that I struggle to emulate. I
would also like to thank Professors Mary Nolan and Marilyn Young, who
provided inspiration and assistance throughout my years as a graduate
student, introducing me to gender history and helping shape the topic of
my study. They and the other two members of my committee, Teresa
Meade and Lila Abu-Lughod, were careful readers and supportive critics.
Teresa also helped with ideas and access to resources for subsequent
Research for this book was completed with fellowships and grants
from the Fulbright Foundation and the Rackham Graduate School, the
Center for Research on Women and Gender, and the Program in Latin
American and Caribbean Studies at the University of Michigan, Ann Ar-
bor. I am also indebted to the archivists and staff of the National Archive
and the National Library in Rio de Janeiro. Isaura Brasil, Alessandra Frota
Martinez, and Licia Mascarenhas provided competent and efficient re-
search assistance during different phases of the project. Irfan Nooruddin
ran the original statistical analysis presented in chapter 5; he, Tom Weis-
kopff, Maris Vinovskis, and David Lam helped interpret the results.
The project might never have been completed without the generous
support and guidance I received from Brazilian colleagues and friends.
Sidney Chalhoub guided me through the criminal record and government
document collections on my very first day in the National Archive. Since
then, he has become a dear friend as well as a source of intellectual in-
spiration and an instigating critic. I am especially grateful to Sidney for
leading me to another intellectually and personally enriching friendship
by introducing me to Martha de Abreu Esteves's work and arranging for