Notes
Introduction
Arquivo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Ministerio da Justil(a e Neg6cios Inte-
riores, Processos Criminais, vara
8,
caixa
1807
no.
430 (1923).
Criminal records,
cited hereafter as
AN,
followed by the vara (court), caixa (box), and record num-
bers, are all taken from this collection. The names of all deponents have been
changed. See Appendix A for a description of the records selected for this study.
[Readers of Portuguese will appreciate the original language of the letter's cru-
cial passage: "Mas casar s6 pela pulicia [sic]! Em 7 de setembro principiei a amar
outra, ate que breve a vou deixar. Em
12
de outubro de
922
[sic] principiei a amar
outra imagina fez hotem
130
dias quer diser [sic]
4
meses e dez dias pois Lu-
crecio peco-te que nunca confesses nada a ninguem, mas tirei os trez vintens
dela! Aqui aplica-se
0
nome de cabal(o."J
2
"To deflower a minor woman through seduction, deceit or fraud" was a crime
under art.
267
of the
1890
penal code. Jorge Severiano, C6digo penal da Re-
publica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Jacinto Ribeiro dos
Santos,
1923), 393.
3 See appendix A.
4
See Appendix A. Beginning in
I9II,
by Decree
9263
of December
28,
sexual
crimes
were tried before individual judges (they had previously been tried be-
fore juries). Firm statistics are not available, but in a comparison of a small
sample of cases from the turn of the century and from the
1920S
and
1930S,
Martha de Abreu Esteves and I found that the earlier jury trials seemed even
more likely to result in an acquittal than the later cases, tried by individual
judges. See Sueann Caulfield and Martha de Abreu Esteves, "Fifty Years of
Virginity in Rio de Janeiro: Sexual Politics and Gender Roles in Juridical and
Popular Discourse,
1890-1940,"
Luso-Brazilian Review
30,
I
(summer
1993):
5
1,73,
table
1.
Evidence of such illegal practices is obviously not recorded by the police them-
selves, and is therefore sparse. Among cases consulted, there were many in
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