I am greatly appreciative of the help and encouragement I have received as this
project has developed.
I have been fortunate to study with a variety of imaginative and thoughtful
teachers. Advice from Geoff Eley, Zvi Gitelman, and Ronald Suny helped shape
this project’s direction from the outset. In hours of talking and brainstorming,
Laura Downs provided me with numerous suggestions and much inspiration.
Her creativity and intuition contributed signiﬁcantly to my thinking. Particular
gratitude goes to Todd Endelman, whose advice throughout the research period
and careful reading of several drafts focused my writing and challenged my as-
sumptions. Working with such an accomplished historian and teacher provided
me with new perspectives on my own research and a solid direction for subse-
Various research institutions were graciously opened to me in France, En-
gland, and the United States. I am grateful to the archivists and librarians who
aided me with their knowledge and expertise. In this regard, special recogni-
tion must go to Raymond H. Kévorkian at the Bibliothèque Nubar, who not only
patiently provided his time but also permitted me exceptional access to the ma-
terials I sought.This project has beneﬁted from fellowships granted by the Mel-
lon Foundation and the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture. These grants,
along with generous support from the University of Michigan, provided time for
its research and writing.
At Brown University, where I have spent several enriching years since com-
pleting my graduate education, I have encountered colleagues who have served