Unless otherwise noted, all translations are mine.
1 Agrowingliteratureonthetopicofgenocidehasemergedinrecentyears.Ingeneral,
this literature has fallen into one of two broad categories.The first tends to be spe-
cific historical studies that detail the cultural, social, political, and economic causes
and consequences of a given case of genocide. Examples of such literature are cited
throughout this introduction,where appropriate,with regard to both the Armenian
and Jewish cases.The second category tends to be largercomparative studies focus-
ing on a number of sociological, psychological, and political questions pertaining
primarily to the origins, prevention, and international implications of genocide. For
a recent discussion of the dimensions of this literature and its limitations, see Alex
Alverez, Governments, Citizens and Genocide: A Comparative and Interdisciplinary Approach
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), pp. 1–7, 14–18.
2 A small body of psychological literature on the impact of trauma on genocide sur-
vivors has addressed this issue from a different angle. See, most recently, Antonius
C. G. M. Robben and Marcelo M. Suàrez-Orozco, eds., Cultures under Siege: Collective
ViolenceandTrauma (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Liter-
ary scholars have also turned to this topic. For example, Rubina Peroomian, Literary
ResponsestoCatastrophe:AComparisonoftheArmenianandJewishExperience (Atlanta, Ga.:
Scholars Press, 1993), p. 1, sets out to ‘‘assess the impact of the Genocide on the col-
genocidetothoseof JewishHolocaustsurvivors.Althoughthisprojectisinteresting
als, it is less convincing in its attempt to explore the ‘‘collective psyche’’ of Armenian
survivors. For literary examinations of the Holocaust’s impact on postwar French
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