Introduction. Tempo Tantrums
1. Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution: Transforming Cultures
and Communities in the Age of Instant Access (Cambridge: Basic Books, 2003), xiii.
2. The first chapter of Rheingold’s Smart Mobs is aptly titled “Shibuya Epiphany.” It
was only after my trip to Shibuya and my own epiphany that I realized that Rheingold
had also stood in this intersection to argue for the social possibilities of this acceler-
3. Paul Virilio, “The Overexposed City,” in Paul Virilio, Lost Dimension, trans. Daniel
Moshenberg (New York: Semiotext(e)), 9–27.
4. Paul Virilio, Politics of the Very Worst (New York: Semiotext(e), 1999), 17.
5. Virilio’s Speed and Politics (New York: Semiotext(e)), was translated to English in
6. For Jonathan Crary we are witnessing the end of sleep and the political with-
drawal of citizens with the rise of 24/7 capitalism. See his 24/7: Late Capitalism and the
Ends of Sleep (London: Verso, 2013). For Robert Hassan this is a “chronoscopic society”
marked by abbreviated thinking and a 24/7 network that governs social life. See his The
Chronoscopic Society: Globalization, Time, and Knowledge in the Network Economy (New
York: Peter Lang, 2003) and his edited volume with Ronald E. Purser, eds. 24/7: Time
and Temporality in the Network Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007).
For Hardt and Negri this 24/7 world reconfigures the political potential of labor. John
Tomlinson is concerned with the culture of speed where a balancing between slowness
and speed is in order. See his The Culture of Speed: The Coming of Immediacy (Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007). John Armitage and Joanne Roberts find a growing polarization
between fast classes and slow classes living between chronotopia and chronodystopia.
See their Living with Cyberspace: Technology and Society in the 21st Century (New York:
Continuum, 2003). Gilles Lipovetksy finds the contemporary “hypermodern.” See his
Hypermodern Times, trans. Andrew Brown (Malden, MA: Polity, 2005). For Zygmunt
Bauman these are liquid times full of local corpses and vagabonds stuck in space and