NOTES
Introduction
1 Three far- right nationalist parties came first in their respective countries:
the Danish People’s Party obtaining 25  percent (+18.7) of the vote; the fn
obtaining 26.6  percent (+11.8) of the vote; and the United Kingdom In de pen-
dence Party with 27.5  percent (+11.4). In general, far- right parties obtained
their highest results in western Eu ropean countries (with the exception
of Hungary). For a more extensive commentary on these results, see Cas
Mudde’s analy sis, “The Far Right in the 2014 Eu ropean Elections: Of Earth-
quakes, Cartels and Designer Fascists,” May 30, 2014, in the Washington Post:
https:// www . washingtonpost . com / news / monkey - cage / wp / 2014 / 05 / 30 / the - far
- right - in - the - 2014 - european - elections - of - earthquakes - cartels - and - designer
- fascists/ (accessed March 3, 2015).
2 See the article “The ‘Brown International’ of the Eu ropean Far Right” by
Thanasis Kampagiannis in Left Flank, January 12, 2014, available at http:// left
- flank . org / 2014 / 01 / 12 / brown - international - european - far - right/ (accessed
January 2, 2016).
3 Bartlett et al., “Pop u lism in Eu rope”; Mayer, “From Jean- Marie to Marine
Le Pen”; Akkerman and Hagelund, Women and Children First!’ ”; Towns
et al., “Equality Conundrum.”
4 The invasion of Af ghanistan that followed the terrorist attacks on the Twin
Towers in New York was presented to, and endorsed by, the international
public as a mission to liberate Afghan women from their oppression under
Taliban rule just as much as an act of defense and retaliation against the
perpetrators of the attacks. From then onward, images of veiled Muslim
women as imprisoned bodies have entered our western collective uncon-
scious alongside those of Muslim bearded men seemingly plotting terrorist
onslaughts against western targets. All across the West, not only right- wing
nationalist and conservative forces but also some leftist and feminist organ-
izations and public figures have endorsed the portrayal of Muslim women as
victims to be saved. In the United States, the Feminist Majority Foundation,
one of the leading feminist voices in the country, effectively supported the
invasion of Af ghanistan as necessary to liberate Afghan women from “gen-
der apartheid” (Russo, “Feminist Majority Foundation’s Campaign to Stop
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