NOTES
Introduction
1 Three far-­right nationalist parties came first in their respective countries:
the Danish ­People’s Party obtaining 25 ­percent (+18.7) of the vote; the fn
obtaining 26.6 ­percent (+11.8) of the vote; and the United Kingdom In­de­pen­
dence Party with 27.5 ­percent (+11.4). In general, far-­right parties obtained
their highest results in western Eu­ro­pean countries (with the exception
of Hungary). For a more extensive commentary on ­these results, see Cas
Mudde’s analy­sis, “The Far Right in the 2014 Eu­ro­pean Elections: Of Earth-
quakes, Cartels and Designer Fascists,” May 30, 2014, in the Washington Post:
https://­www​.­washingtonpost​ . ­com​/­news​ / ­monkey​-­cage​/­wp​/­2014​ / ­ 05​/­30​/­the​-­far​
-­right​ - ­ in​ - ­ the​ - ­ 2014​ - ­ european​ - ­ elections​-­ of -­earthquakes​-­cartels​-­and​-­designer​
-­fascists/ (accessed March 3, 2015).
2 See the article “The ‘Brown International’ of the Eu­ro­pean Far Right” by
Thanasis Kampagiannis in Left Flank, January 12, 2014, available at http://­left​
-­flank​ . ­ org​ / ­ 2014​ / ­ 01​ / ­ 12​ / ­ brown​-­international​-european​-­ ­ far -­right/ (accessed
January 2, 2016).
3 Bartlett et al., “Pop­u­lism in Eu­rope”; Mayer, “From Jean-­Marie to Marine
Le Pen”; Akkerman and Hagelund, “  ‘­Women and ­Children First!’  ”; Towns
et al., “Equality Conundrum.”
4 The invasion of Af­ g han­i­stan that followed the terrorist attacks on the Twin
Towers in New York was presented to, and endorsed by, the international
public as a mission to liberate Afghan ­women from their oppression ­ under
Taliban rule just as much as an act of defense and retaliation against the
perpetrators of the attacks. From then onward, images of veiled Muslim ­
women as imprisoned bodies have entered our western collective uncon-
scious alongside ­those of Muslim bearded men seemingly plotting terrorist
onslaughts against western targets. All across the West, not only right-­wing
nationalist and conservative forces but also some leftist and feminist organ­
izations and public figures have endorsed the portrayal of Muslim ­women as
victims to be saved. In the United States, the Feminist Majority Foundation,
one of the leading feminist voices in the country, effectively supported the
invasion of Af­ghan­i­stan as necessary to liberate Afghan ­ women from “gen-
der apartheid” (Russo, “Feminist Majority Foundation’s Campaign to Stop
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