index
Africa, 41, 152, 153, 154, 158, 166
African Americans (U.S.), 27, 172, 174,
184
Afro-descendants (Latin America). See
Race; Racism
Agricultural labor, 169–73, 176, 181,
183–84, 186–90
Aliança Renovadora Nacional (arena),
111–12
Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Amer-
icana (apra), 67, 69–70, 99
Alma Alta conference (who), 67
American Anthropological Association,
8
American Historical Association, 8
Anderson, Benedict, 14
Anónimo Consejo, 140, 149, 151, 153,
161, 165
Antiracism, 21, 140, 141–42, 144, 146,
162, 165
Argentina, 4, 15, 26, 33, 58
Asociación de Empleados del Perú
(aep), 70
Barnet, Miguel, 160
Baudrillard, Jean, 141
Beauvoir, Simone de, 84
Belaúnde Terry, Fernando, 66
Benavides, Óscar, 62, 69
Benítez Rojo, Antonio, 160
Berlin Wall, 142, 165
Bhabha, Homi, 157, 165
Bolivia, xiii, 7, 15, 27, 30, 37, 44
Bonfil, Guillermo, 38
Borges, Jorge Luis, 193–94
Bounded categories, xii, xiv, 53–54, 57.
See also Categorical inequalities; Tilly,
Charles
Bourdieu, Pierre, 10, 19, 196
Brazil, xiii, 3–4, 7, 15, 22, 26, 29, 30, 33,
35, 37–38, 58, 106–7, 109–28, 143
Bustamante y Rivero, President José, 70
Caixias do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul, Bra-
zil), 111, 114–15, 119, 122–23
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 15
Categorical inequalities, xii, xiv, 4–5,
17–19, 21–22, 27, 29, 32–33, 47, 53–
55, 57, 67, 104, 140, 172, 174, 178,
188, 189. See also Tilly, Charles
Catholicism, 11, 63–66, 95–96, 194. See
also Religion
cepal (Comisi¯on Econ¯omica Para
América Latina y el Caribe), 9
Charity, 66, 89; religious charities, 63–
64, 97
Chávez, Hugo, xv
Children. See Family
Chile, 7, 15, 27, 42, 45, 49, 58, 97
Citizenship, 108, 172, 175, 179, 181. See
also Electoral politics
Clientelism, 9, 26–27, 45, 66, 98, 108,
118, 194
Coatsworth, John, 13, 28
Coca growers, 104
Collective rights, xiii
Colombia, 4, 37, 97
Colonialism: colonial roots of inequal-
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