(Kichwa terms are in italics)
Apegado Literally ‘‘stuck-on,’’ a landless person often living alongside a road. This term
included Indigenous workers who assisted with the harvest on a hacienda and, in ex-
change, were allowed to collect leftovers in the ﬁeld from the harvest and sometimes
received a small cash payment for their services.
Arrimado An Indian who did not have a labor contract with the hacienda, but lived with
a relative who did and helped cultivate that person’s huasipungo plot. This person was
obliged to help with tasks on the hacienda, and earned a small wage for doing so.
Campesino Literally a person from the countryside (campo), usually indicating someone
(often an Indian) who works the land for a living. Campesino is sometimes translated
into English as ‘‘peasant.’’
Chagra A small plot of farmland, usually belonging to an Indian or mestizo.
Chagracama A person assigned the duty of protecting a hacienda’s crops from birds and
other predators. Often an Indian who was injured, too young, or too old and could not
work in the ﬁelds; a chagracama was liable for any crop losses.
Comuna Established by a 1937 law, comuna refers to a community that held resources
(often pasture land and water) communally.
Concertaje A system of contracted debt that held Indian laborers (conciertos) to a
hacienda under threat of prison. Conciertos received access to a small plot of land in