Appendix 1
Methodology and Research Design
Our methodology centers on an “inter-institutional ethnography” (Burawoy
et al. 2000) of indigenous development networks and their “situated cultural
practices” (Ong 1999, 17). For this study, such a methodology involved ascertain-
ing the following four items:
The history and role of key actors in the indigenous development net-
work, and the rationales for indigenous development
How these actors situate indigenous development within broader agen-
das of development policy, government-led reform, and indigenous
movement politics
Other organizations and agencies they interact with and in what
The class, racial, and gender dimensions of indigenous development
and the organizations involved
Each chapter of this book incorporates all four points of the ethnography into
its analysis.
The substantive material in the book draws on our extensive fieldwork in
Ecuador, Bolivia, the United States, and the U.K. We combined over one hun-
dred interviews (mostly in Spanish) with participant observation and primary-
document analysis, including the analysis of web sites. Within the Andes, we
researched in and around La Paz and Cochabamba, Bolivia, and Quito and
Cuenca, Ecuador. We conducted interviews with leaders of local, national, and
international indigenous organizations. From there we “followed” the network
to interview members of organizations primarily oriented toward development
that have worked with indigenous peoples’ organizations by providing financial
aid, training, and technical advice.

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