Introduction: Indigenous Development in the Andes
1 When we speak of international development agencies in this book, we are including
ofﬁcial multilateral and bilateral agencies, as well as international ngos with home
bases outside of—or with spatial remits beyond—Ecuador or Bolivia. Likewise,
when we speak of the Andes, we are referring usually to Ecuador and Bolivia, and
not necessarily to countries like Peru, Colombia, and Chile, which are often identi-
ﬁed as Andean.
2 Mato (2000) describes this process as the “infusion of outside issues and agendas
into domestic or local contexts” (199). On governmentality and its application to
development, see Burchell, Gordon, and Miller (1991); Escobar (1995); Watts (2003);
and Li (2007). Later in this chapter we apply governmentality theory to indigenous
development in the Andes.
3 There are of course exceptions to this trend, most notably in Venezuela.
4 Very recent developments suggest a distancing from neoliberalism in Bolivia and
Ecuador. This will be addressed in the concluding chapter, but a thorough exami-
nation of this phenomenon is beyond the scope of our analysis. See Hershberg and
Rosen (2006) for an overview of post-neoliberal issues in Latin America.
5 The count was for so-called second-tier organizations, which in Ecuador are repre-
sentative of a series of community-scale (ﬁrst-tier) organizations, whose leaders are
chosen by community organization delegates. Third-tier organizations are federa-
tions at the provincial scale or beyond.
6 As Shore and Wright (1997) have argued, the influence of policy lies in part through
the ways that language, expectations, and technology classify individuals and groups
as objects of power.
7 As such, we extend Pottier, Bicker, and Sillitoe’s (2003) examination of development
knowledge to development paradigms and agendas more broadly.
8 Intellectually, the work of Amartya Sen (1990, 1992) has influenced social neoliber-
alism. This paradigm has also been driven by publications and conferences of the
United Nations, International Labor Organization, and Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean. ngo and social-movement critiques of neoliberal
orthodoxy, and their complaints about the lack of participation and transparency
in development practices, have also informed the social neoliberalism.