-:- NOTES -:--:-
I: "Innumerable Indians"
I. The description of Toledo's entry into Cuzco is by Arthur F. Zimmerman,
Franciscode Toledo:Fifth Viceroyof Peru,
(New York: Greenwood
Press, 1968), p. 101. Originally published in Caldwell, Idaho, by Caston Print-
ers, 1938. A note about the spelling ofCusco" and "Cuzco": I have consistently
used the colonial-era spelling, "Cuzco," to refer to both the city and the
bishopric, except in those cases where I refer to institutions, such as regional
archives, whose names use the modern spelling, "Cusco."
2. This broad survey of pre-Incan and Incan society is based on my own
reading of primary documents and on the work of many Andeanists, particularly
Brooke Larson, John Murra, Franklin Pease, Irene Silverblatt, Karen Spalding,
Steve J. Stern, and Nathan Wachtel. Their works are cited below and listed in
the bibliography. Throughout this study the term "traditional" should be con-
sidered as indicating the persistence of preconquest values, in the context
developed by Eric Wolf: "Persistence, like change, is not a cause-it is an
effect," a mechanism which explains "why tradition persists, [and] why people
cleave to it." Peasants(Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), p. viii.
3. The report from Toledo's assistant is found in Testimonio de visita,
Cuzco, I7-VIII- I571. Quoted in
Escribania 506A. Martin Garcia de
Loyola contra el Fiscal de la encomienda de Yndios del Repartimiento de Yucay,
1633, ff. 3V-4. Many of these Indians claimed to be yanaconas. Toledo's
regulations on yanacona status are discussed in detail in chapter 2. The viceroy's
comments are from
Lima 1623. Auto del Virrey Don Francisco de Toledo,
3-XII- I571. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations of primary documents
and passages from secondary works are my own. The titles of documents are
recorded as entered in archival indices or as written on opening folios. After the
first citation, documents are identified by their archival codes.
4. The summary of Toledo's findings is drawn from the primary documents
cited above and from:
Unmarked boxes B-5. Carta del Virrey Don
Francisco de Toledo al Rey, Cuzco, II-VIII-1572;
Lima 1623. La or-
dinaria que nuevamente mand6 y orderar [sic]Suo Exc- para sacar guacas, sin
fecha. The decree was signed "in Cuzco, the tenth day of this month and this
year"; the author was definitely Toledo. The general order to confiscate all
guacas cited one particular guaca which he had been told was buried somewhere
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