Chapter 1: Public Sphere beyond Religious-Secular Dichotomies
1 Habermas, “On the Relations between the Secular Liberal State and
2 See, especially, Rosati and Stoeckl, “Introduction.”
3 Taylor, A Secular Age.
4 Göle, Interpénétrations.
5 Wallerstein et al., Open the Social Sciences.
6 Chakrabarty, Habitations of Modernity.
7 Among a series of publications on multiple modernities, see Eisen-
stadt, Comparative Civilizations and Multiple Modernities, and “Mul-
tiple Modernities”; Göle, “Islam in Public: New Visibilities and New
Imaginaries”; Gaonkar, “On Alternative Modernities.”
8 The notion of différend, developed by Lyotard, refers to a conflict that
cannot be settled due to the absence of a ruling judgment applicable
to both arguments under consideration. When two expressions “in a
heterogeneous system are not translatable the one to the other, there
is a différend between these expressions (or between the categories to
which they belong), because they are heterogeneous.” Différend ap-
plies not only to verbal expressions but also to silences that function
as negations, to phrase-affects. I use this notion, going beyond the dis-
cursive domain, to indicate all the practices, forms, and norms that