all dates are bce (before the common era).
Settlement of the Attic peninsula after the fall of the Mycenaean
civilization (ca. 1177 bce).
Migration of peoples from the Attic peninsula to the peripheries in
Ionia and Sicily begins.
David becomes king of Israel.
Solomon becomes king after David.
The uniﬁed state of Israel splits into the northern Israeli tribes and the
kingdom of Judah to the south.
Olympic games in honor of Zeus opened.
City- states (poleis) proliferate all over the Greek territory. Colonies
established in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea coast (Ionian
colonies founded). Phonetic alphabet developed in the Greek
The Iliad and Odyssey composed by Homer in Ionian dialect.
Assyria destroys the state of Israel.
Hesiod composes Works and Days and Theogony.
In Athens, the term of the archon, or magistrate, is limited to one year,
signaling the stabilization of aristocratic rule.
Age of the lawgivers and tyrants in Greece (until ca. 500 bce).
In Athens, harsh laws established under Draco (instability in aristo-
In Athens, bonded servitude of small and medium landholders pro-
Babylonian empire rules over Jerusalem (ﬁrst Babylonian captivity).
Tower of Babel, Hanging Gardens built in Babylon.
Reforms of Solon.
Babylon destroys Jerusalem, collapse of kingdom of Judah (second
The city- states of Ionia are subjugated by the Lydian empire.
Timeline of the Ancient World