Conclusion
In reading the history of nations, we find that, like individuals, they
have their whims and their peculiarities; their seasons of excitement
and recklessness, when they care not what they do. . . . We see one
nation suddenly seized with a fierce desire of military glory; another
as suddenly becoming crazed upon a religious scruple; and neither of
them recovering its senses until it has shed rivers of blood and sowed
a harvest of groans and tears, to be reaped by its posterity.
CHARLES MACKAY,
Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions
and the Madness of Crowds, xix
The success of the Islamic revolutionary ideology is the novel and
teleologically distinct mark of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. . . . In
a sense it has considerable ideological advantages over Nazism and
communism, both of which clashed with religion. Rather than creating
a new substitute for religion, as did the Communists and the Nazis,
the Islamic militants have fortified an already vigorous religion with
the ideological armor necessary for battle in the arena of mass politics.
In doing so, they have made their distinct contributions to world
history.—
SAID AMIR ARJOMAND,
The Turban for the Crown, 210
In War without Mercy, John Dower exposed the racism in America to-
ward the Japanese people as a whole during the Pacific War. Japanese
were considered ‘‘subhuman and repulsive’’ by many Americans. In daily
conversation, Americans tended to refer to their wartime enemies, Ger-
many and Japan, as ‘‘Hitler and the Japs’’ or ‘‘the Nazis and the Japs.’’
Dower pointed out that the implication of perceiving the enemy as
‘‘Nazis’’ and ‘‘Japs’’ was enormous, for ‘‘this left the space for the recog-
nition of the ‘good German,’ but scant comparable place for ‘good’
Japanese.’’∞ Racism was certainly a major factor in the inability or the
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