Holtom, The National Faith of Japan, 3–4.
In his well-crafted essay ‘‘The Fascist Era,’’ Joseph Sottile surveyed the
long-running, contentious scholarly debate on how to deﬁne and cate-
gorize fascism and the ongoing debate among American and Western
scholars regarding the ideological placement of Japan within the Axis
alliance. He notes, ‘‘Faced with a complex Cold War paradigm and the
difﬁcult problems of war guilt, . . . Western scholars have embraced
Japan as different to avoid attaching to it the ugly word ‘fascism’ ’’:
Sottile, ‘‘The Fascist Era,’’ 12.
Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology, 1.
Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.
Bodansky, Bin Laden, x.
Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, 209.
Juergensmeyer, The New Cold War?
These are the words of Benamin R. Barber: see the introduction in
Barber, Jihad versus McWorld.
Maruyama, ‘‘The Ideology and Dynamics of Japanese Fascism,’’ 36.
Ishida, Meiji Seiji Shis¯o Shi Kenky¯.u
Irokawa, ‘‘The Emperor System as a Spiritual Structure,’’ 245–311.
Hagakure in Nihon Shis¯o Taikei, vol. 26, (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1974),
220. I studied formally with Professor Sagara as a graduate research
student in the Department of Ethics of Tokyo University between 1975
and 1978. I also studied with him in an unofﬁcial capacity until 1981,
when I enrolled as a graduate research student in the Department of