Notes
Introduction

Holtom, The National Faith of Japan, 3–4.

In his well-crafted essay ‘‘The Fascist Era,’’ Joseph Sottile surveyed the
long-running, contentious scholarly debate on how to define and cate-
gorize fascism and the ongoing debate among American and Western
scholars regarding the ideological placement of Japan within the Axis
alliance. He notes, ‘‘Faced with a complex Cold War paradigm and the
difficult problems of war guilt, . . . Western scholars have embraced
Japan as different to avoid attaching to it the ugly word ‘fascism’ ’’:
Sottile, ‘‘The Fascist Era,’’ 12.

Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology, 1.

Ibid.

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.

Bodansky, Bin Laden, x.
π
Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, 209.

Ibid., 217–218.
Ω
Juergensmeyer, The New Cold War?
∞≠
Ibid., 1–2.
∞∞
These are the words of Benamin R. Barber: see the introduction in
Barber, Jihad versus McWorld.
∞≤
Maruyama, ‘‘The Ideology and Dynamics of Japanese Fascism,’’ 36.
∞≥
Ibid.
∞∂
Ibid., 37.
∞∑
Ishida, Meiji Seiji Shis¯o Shi Kenky¯.u
∞∏
Irokawa, ‘‘The Emperor System as a Spiritual Structure,’’ 245–311.
∞π
Ibid., 282.
∞∫
Hagakure in Nihon Shis¯o Taikei, vol. 26, (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1974),
220. I studied formally with Professor Sagara as a graduate research
student in the Department of Ethics of Tokyo University between 1975
and 1978. I also studied with him in an unofficial capacity until 1981,
when I enrolled as a graduate research student in the Department of
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