notes to IntroductIon
Earlier, Djerassi had clariﬁed this point by explaining that “Searle deserves full
credit for reaching the market ﬁrst with an oral contraceptive, norethynodrel,
under the trade name Enovid, but its repeated claim to have synthesized the
substance independently and concurrently with Syntex’s norethindrone con-
stitutes a blatant misrepresentation of the facts.” Djerassi, This Man’s Pill, 58
and 53, respectively.
7. Harper’s Magazine reported, “The cortisone production problem was solved . . .
it should be noted that the leader in the race was a chemical manufacturer in
presumably backward Mexico.” Leonard Engel, “ACTH, Cortisone, & Co,” 25.
8. D. Freebairn, The Dichotomy of Prosperity, 38.
9. Gary Gereﬃ’s The Pharmaceutical Industry and Dependency in the Third World
uses the steroid hormone industry as an example to illustrate dependency
theory in Latin America.
10. At the inauguration of the National Population Council (CONApO), Echeverría
explicitly called for Mexican scientists to produce Mexican oral contraceptives.
Act of the Solemn Founding of the National Population Council, March 27,
11. D. Borges, “‘Puﬀy, Ugly, Slothful and Inert’: Degeneration in Brazilian Social
Thought, 1880–1940,” Journal of Latin American Studies 25 (1993): 235–56;
A. Stern, “Responsible Mothers and Normal Children”; N. Stepan, The Hour of
12. As Stepan reminds us, Latin American intellectuals “embraced science as a
form of progressive knowledge, as an alternative to the religious view of reality,
and as a means of establishing a new form of cultural power.” The Hour of Eu-
13. K. Bliss, Compromised Positions: Prostitution, Public Health and Gender Poli-
tics in Revolutionary Mexico; Diego Armus, Disease in the History of Modern
Latin America: From Malaria to AIDS; E. Zolov, Refried Elvis: The Rise of the
Mexican Counterculture; W. Anderson, Colonial Pathologies: American Tropi-
cal Medicine, Race and Hygiene in the Philippines.
14. Lara Marks, Sexual Chemistry; L. Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Sci-
ence, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico.
15. L. Schiebinger, Nature’s Body, 185.
16. David Wade Chambers and Richard Gillespie, “Locality in the History of Sci-
17. Steven Feierman, Peasant Intellectuals, 18.
18. Paul Gootenberg, “Cocaine in Chains,” 322.
19. Steven Topik, From Silver to Cocaine; C. Walsh, The Social Relations of Mexican
20. Vandana Shiva, “Bioprospecting as Sophisticated Biopiracy,” Signs: Journal of
Women in Culture and Society 32, no. 2 (2007): 307; W. Reid et al., Biodiversity