1. For a superb description of Chile’s forest types, see Ken Wilcox, Chile’s Native
Forests: A Conservation Legacy (Redway, CA: Ancient Forest International, 1996),
esp. 11–29. See also Claudio Donoso Zegers, Bosques templados de Chile y Argen-
tina: Variación, estructura y dinámica (Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1993);
Eduardo Neira, Hernán Verscheure, Carmen Revenga, Eduardo Neira, Carmen
Revenga, Chile’s Frontier Forests: Conserving a Global Treasure (Valdivia: World
Resources Institute, Comité Nacional Pro Defensa de la Fauna y Flora, Universi-
dad Austral de Chile, 2002), 6.
2. Joaquin Lavín, Chile: Revolución silenciosa (Santiago: Zig- Zag, 1987). For
critical historical interpretations of Chile’s vaunted economic miracle that focus
on both the social and environmental costs of free- market development, see the
essays in Peter Winn, ed., Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberal-
ism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004),
and Rayén Quiroga Martínez, Saar van Hauwermeiren, Jorge Berghammer Vega,
Patricio Del Real Jaramillo, Marlene Gimpel Madariaga, eds., El tigre sin selva:
Consecuencias ambientales de la transformación económica de Chile, 1974–1993 (San-
tiago: Instituto de Ecología Política, 1994).
3. For works on the conflict between forestry companies and Mapuche commu-
nities, see Diane Haughney, Neoliberal Economics, Democratic Transition, and Ma-
puche Demands for Rights in Chile (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006);
Sara McFall, ed., Territorio mapuche y expansión forestal (Temuco: Ediciones Es-
caparate, 2001).
4. Karl Jacoby, Crimes against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hid-
den History of American Conservation (Berkeley: University of California Press,
2003), 3. For an overview of forestry development in Chile, see Pablo Camus
Gayán, Ambiente, bosques y gestión forestal en Chile, 1541–2005 (Santiago: lom
Ediciones and Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, 2006). For an envi-
ronmentalist critique of forestry development, see also Defensores del Bosque
Chileno, ed., La tragedia del bosque chileno (Santiago: Ocho Libros Editores, 1998).
5. See also Roger Alex Clapp, “Creating Competitive Advantage: Forest Policy
as Industrial Policy in Chile,” Economic Geography 71, no. 3 (July 1995): 273–96;
Camus Gayán, Ambiente, bosques y gestión forestal en Chile.
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