Notes
Introduction
Giuseppe Verdi, Rigoletto (libretto by Francesco Maria Piave),
2
sound disks and
notes (Middlesex, England: Hayes, 1989), act 3. Unless indicated otherwise, all
translations in this volume are mine.
2
Gilda will in fact sacrifice her life for the Duke, thus revising the impact of
this song on any listener aware of the opera's conclusion.
3 Scholarly works that provide overviews of this literature include Ruth Kelso,
Doctrinefor the Lady
of
the Renaissance (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1956);
Ian Maclean, The Renaissance Notion
of
Woman: A Study
of
the Fortunes
of
Scholasti-
cism and Medical Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980); Marina
Zancan, "La donna," in Letteratura italiana: Le questioni, ed. R. Antonelli and
A. Cicchetti (Turin: Einaudi, 1986); Constance Jordan, Renaissance Feminism:
Literary Texts and Political Models (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990); Mar-
garet
L.
King, Women of the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1991); Pamela Joseph Benson, The Invention
of
the Renaissance Woman: The Chal-
lenge
of
Female Independence in the Literature and Thought of Italy and England (Uni-
versity Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992); and Mary E. Wiesner,
Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1993). For further references, see the individual chapters of this book.
4
Akin, if perhaps remotely, to my thinking here are Rosi Braidotti's discussions
advocating a feminist "nomad subjectivity" in our postmodern age. See the
introduction to her Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Con-
temporary Feminist Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), 1-39.
5 See Wiesner's chapter
3,
"Women's Economic Role," on the difficulties faced by
women travelers and merchants who were suspected of being prostitutes and
bawds (Women and Gender, 82-II4), and her discussions of similar responses to
women's efforts to educate themselves (II7-45) and participate in artistic and
political (146-78) and religious (179-217) cultures.
6 Following a scholarly tradition that views Christine de Pizan as the first woman
writer to formulate a systematic critique of misogynist literature and histori-
ography, I adopt the French name for this centuries-long quarrel.
I9I
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