Note on Pronunciation
I transcribed sounds in Toba, as it is spoken in the northw
as follows. Vowels: a: approximately as in father; e: approxi
tric; i: approximately as in feet; o: somewhat as in note, bu
Consonants: G: voiced postvelar fricative; h: voiceless glo
proximately as in home);k: voiceless velar occlusive; ñ: voice
voiceless velar occlusive; w: voiced bilabial semivowel. This
adapted from Métraux (1946a) and Wright (1997) and does
language tones.
Toba Terms
chaatá: the north; the Paraguayan Chaco
cháiq: giant water snake
dalaGaikpí: the new ones; current Toba generations
do’okohé: the Criollo settlers; white people in general (plura
epiáGayaik: skillful forager
haliaganék: headman; leader with shamanic powers; boss; p
kade’tá: ‘‘our father’’; missionary; ‘‘God’’
kahogonaGá: the mountains; the sugar plantations
kedokpolio: ‘‘large jaguar’’
KiyaGaikpí: ‘‘the big eaters’’; the cannibals of the San Franci
kohilé’ec: Criollo settler; white person (singular)
kohodót: bush dwarf; the male partner of kopeletáGa
kol’eá: tobacco fields; San Martín del Tabacal
konánaGae: witch
kopeletáGa: the owner of bola verde (a wild fruit); the fema
laheGó: ‘‘the other side’’; the lands across the marshes
lakáia: siblings and first cousins; friends; ‘‘brothers’’ in a Ch
lék: giant but short water snake that in mythical times crea
mayo River
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