In the course of researching and writing a project of this scope over ten years,
I have received help, encouragement, and wisdom from many friends, col-
leagues, and institutions. It is my pleasure to thank them at this time and to
recognize the invaluable assistance they have given me. Institutional and finan-
cial support from the University of Missouri, St. Louis, and the University of
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in addition to short-term travel grants from the
Hewlett Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the
Asociación Pro-Arte y Cultura (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia), made it
possible to carry out the archival and fieldwork and to write the manuscript. I
am equally pleased to express my gratitude to the Bancroft Library at the
University of California, Berkeley, and to the sta√ at the Newberry Library in
Chicago, for their help in locating primary sources. Research assistants María
Tapias, Ariel Yablón, Nicole Mottier, Mark Kummerer, Nathan Clarke, Frank
Alvarez, Francisco Salazar, and Margarita Ochoa helped with important tasks
related to data analysis, bibliography, index, and illustrations. University of
Illinois librarians Nelly González, Alven Bregman, and Jenny Johnson and
University of New Mexico Centennial Science and Engineering Library map
librarian Mary Wyant graciously helped me to locate and copy the maps that
illustrate the book, and Nuala Bennett Koetter helped to scan and copy them.
Jane Domier drew the basic placement maps of northwestern Mexico and
eastern Bolivia; Robert H. Jackson generously sent me two maps that he had
located in the Library of Congress.
In Bolivia, I am indebted to the professional sta√ of the Archivo y Biblioteca
Nacionales de Bolivia under the direction of Gunnar Mendoza, Josep M. Bar-
nadas, René Arze Aguirre, Hugo Poppe Entrambasaguas, and Marcela Inch,
whose expert assistance opened to me the rich holdings of this national trea-
sure. My visits to Sucre have been enriched by the friendship of Deysi Pacheco
de Rojas and her family, for which I am very grateful. In Santa Cruz de la
Sierra, Paula Peña Hasbrún and her e≈cient and enthusiastic sta√ made it
possible for me to work in the Fondo Prefectural of the archive and museum of
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