1. Radding, Wandering Peoples, represents my work on Sonora.
2. Representative works include Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, esp. vol. 3, The
Perspective of the World; and Wallerstein, The Modern World-System. Two succinct
works focused on imperial systems in the Americas are Stein and Stein, The Colonial
Heritage of Latin America; and Seed, Ceremonies of Possession.
3. Dobb, Studies in the Development of Capitalism; Aston and Philpin, The Brenner
Debate; Hilton and Sweezy, The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism; Hobsbawm,
The Age of Capital; and Tracy, The Rise of Merchant Empires. See also Kula, Problemas y
métodos de la historia económica; and Tenenti, La formación del mundo moderno. These
same issues are viewed from an Americanist perspective in Andrien and Johnson, The
Political Economy of Spanish America in the Age of Revolution.
4. Wolf, Europe and the People without History. Wolf’s distinguished oeuvre on peas-
antries, rebels, and colonized peoples has had a formative influence on historians and
anthropologists of several generations and many di√erent fields. Representative of
them is research on the political economy and culture of labor in colonial settings. See
Lovejoy and Rogers, Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World. Recogni-
tion of the force of racialized and class distinctions for creating social inequalities in
colonial and postcolonial settings has been sharpened and complicated by recent stud-
ies that employ gender as a central analytical category. See Dore and Molyneux, Hidden
5. Kupperman, America in European Consciousness; Cañizares-Esguerra, How to Write
the History of the New World; Natalie Zemon Davis, ‘‘Metamorphoses: Maria Sibylla
Merian,’’ in Davis, Women on the Margins, 140–202, shows how science and gender
crossed the European and American boundaries of the early modern Atlantic world.
6. Van Young, ‘‘Cities, Hinterlands, and Marches.’’
7. The notes in this volume have been edited for brevity to conform to space limita-
tions. The full set of endnotes, including additional commentary and the original
Spanish wording of direct quotations translated into English in the text, can be found
in electronic format in the University of New Mexico institutional repository at