Terms particular to Sonora (So) and to Chiquitos (Ch) are marked accordingly.
(Q) refers to Quechua.
acequias: irrigation ditches
adelantado: frontier governor; has strong militaristic overtones
aguadas permanentes: watering holes su≈cient to water and graze livestock
alcabala: colonial sales tax
alcalde: judge and cabildo o≈cer
alcalde de primer voto: first magistrate
alcalde de segundo voto: second magistrate
alcalde mayor: district magistrate
aldea: village, fixed settlement
alférez: second lieutenant
alguacil: administrative o≈cer overseeing community resources
alhóndiga: public granary
almas: souls
almud: a dry measure, sometimes one-twelfth of a fanega, sometimes one-quarter
annuas: annual reports issued by the Jesuits
apoderado: person holding power of attorney over another
arriero: muleteer
arroba: a weight of twenty-five pounds
arroyo: brook
asojna (Ch): small bird; in Chiquitano mythology, it was once endowed with shamanic
powers, marking the changing of the seasons
audiencia: colonial court governing institution presided over by four judges
ayllu (Q): lineages claiming to descend from a common ancestor and sharing ter-
ritorial use-rights
baldíos: ‘‘vacant lands’’; also referred to as tierras realengas
bañados: bogs
bandeir: see maloca
bandeirantes: Portuguese explorers and slave hunters
bárbaro: barbarian
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