1. All references to this case are from an, Série Processos Crimes, 160 Distrito
Policial, June 25, 1907.
2. See, for example, Lopez-Rey, ‘‘Gambling in Latin American Countries’’; Macry,
Giocare la vita; Fabian, Card Sharps, Dream Books, and Buckets Shops; Wolcott,
‘‘The Culture of the Informal Economy’’; Clapson, A Bit of a Flutter; Crespo, ‘‘Os
jogos de fortuna ou azar em Lisboa em fins do Antigo Regime’’; and Urrutia, ‘‘ ‘La
tentación de la suerte.’ ’’
3. See, for example, Pina-Cabral, Between China and Europe, chap. 4.
4. Reith, The Age of Chance, 75. See also Lears, ‘‘Playing with Money,’’ 7–41; and
Clifford Geertz, ‘‘Deep Play.’’
5. Kavanagh, Enlightenment and the Shadows of Chance; Hacking, The Emergence of
Probability; Lears, ‘‘Playing with Money’’; Reith, The Age of Chance; ‘‘The Culture
of Risk and Pleasure,’’ special volume of Eighteenth-Century Studies 33: 4; and,
Macry, Giocare la vita.
6. Freyre, Casa-grande e senzala, 203–4, 244n13. See also DaMatta, ‘‘The Many
Levels of Carnival,’’ in Carnivals, Rogues, and Heroes, 91.
7. Reith, The Age of Chance, xv.
8. See especially O’Brien and Roseberry, eds., Golden Ages, Dark Ages; Palmié, Wiz-
ards and Scientists; and Glassman, Feasts and Riot.
9. No comprehensive statistics exist for conviction rates for jogo do bicho cases. The
data used here come from a random sample of cases (processos) in the National
Archive (an). Case outcomes are also noted in judges’ sentencing records (an,
Livros de Sentença), of which only a small number survive.
10. The processo contains jogo do bicho lists; an, Série Processos-Crimes, T8–3467.
11. Cf. Parker, ‘‘Law, Honor, and Impunity in Spanish America.’’
12. Newspapers devoted to the jogo do bicho include O Bicho (1903–14) and O
Palpite (1906–9); bn, Setor de Periódicos.
13. González Arce, Aparencia y Poder, 105. Sumptuary laws existed in times and places
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