Appendix 2 / Born versus Sworn /
Filipino American Youth Gangs
During the course of the 1970s, the Bay Area witnessed the rise of two
major kinds of Filipino American youth gangs. The first were offshoots
of provincial prison gangs established in the Philippines and then “im-
ported” to the United States during the post- 1965 waves of Filipino
immigrants. In the Bay Area, three of the larger gangs of this kind in-
cluded the bng (Bahala Na Gang), lvm (Luzon Visayan Mindenao, later
changed to Luzon Visayan Mobsters), and ss (Sigue Sigue). Filipino
teens encountered these gangs either as youth when they lived in the
Philippines or through older relatives once in America (Nuevo 2002). For
example, Kim Kantares recalled that during his childhood these gangs
“were old school gangs that we knew about from the older relatives and
brought over. . . . Some of those gang members made it over here and
started their own chapters or started to influence a younger cousin or
friend in school.” Yusef Rashid related a similar set of experiences from
his youth as well: “These are hard core, very, very violent and organized
gangs in the Philippines. They control all kinds of vice, you know, out of
the prisons. So a lot of time . . . the guys who . . . appear to come from
maybe middle- class backgrounds, their fathers had authentic gangster
backgrounds even if they became successful here. . . . That kind of has a
holdover effect.” The other type of Filipino youth gang was indigenous
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