Notes
Prologue
The narrative of the prologue was adapted from a conversation I had with Dino
Rivera, asking him to describe the step- by-step process that goes into planning
and executing a gig. In some cases, the adaptation was written directly from quotes
Rivera gave me; at other times, I added details based on his testimony but rewrote
them for the sake of clarity and narrative consistency.
1. A truss is a modular, metal frame used to support lighting equipment. It can
be broken down into smaller component parts for easy storage and assembly. “He-
licopters” are spotlights that sit on a spinning platform and revolve, similar to an
emergency vehicle siren. “Oscillators” are spotlights that pan across a horizontal
plane.
Introduction
1. Scratching, aka scratch djing aka turntablism, refers to the manipulation of
vinyl records and a turntable stylus to create sounds and rhythms. Scratching came
out of early hip- hop dj styles and still shares a close relationship with hip- hop
culture and music. While this book discusses the rise of turntablism within the
mobile scene, my primary focus is on the mobile crews, not the scratch crews. For
the latter, see Tiongson 2013, as his research looks almost exclusively at Bay Area
Filipino American scratch djs of the 1990s, some of whom began in mobile crews
but who constituted a distinct and largely separate generation of djs from the
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