1 Abdelfattah Kilito, ‘‘Les mots canins,’’ in Du bilinguisme, ed. Abdelkebir Khatibi
(Paris: Denoël, 1985). An English version is published as ‘‘Dog Words,’’ trans.
Ziad Elmarsafy, in Displacements: Cultural Identities in Question, ed. Angelika Bam-
mer (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).
2 President George W. Bush, speaking at the annual dinner of the American
Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, February 26, 2003, posted April
2, 2003, at
3 President Bush, discussing freedom in Iraq and the Middle East, remarks by the
president at the twentieth anniversary of the National Endowment of Democ-
racy, October 16, posted November 6, 2003, at
4 Anne Norton, Ninety-five Theses on Politics, Culture, and Method (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2004).
5 Louis Althusser and Étienne Balibar, Reading Capital (London: Verso Editions,
1 See, for example, Rashid Khalidi, Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and Amer-
ica’s Perilous Path in the Middle East (Boston: Beacon Press, 2004); and Robert Fisk,
The Great War for Civilization: The Conquest of the Middle East (London: Fourth Estate,
2 Although Egypt did not have large European colonial settlements, which usually
define the term colony such as in Algeria, the British occupation of Egypt was
more than just formal imperial control of political and economic a√airs.
3 Israel Gershoni and James Jankowski, Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs: The Search for
Egyptian Nationhood, 1900–1930 (London: Oxford University Press, 1986).
4 Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid-Marsot, Egypt’s Liberal Experiment, 1922–1936 (Berkeley: Uni-
versity of California Press, 1977).
5 Jacques Lacan, Écrits (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1966).
6 See Lewis R. Gordon, ‘‘The Black and the Body Politic: Fanon’s Existential
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