acknowledgments
R
esearch for this book began in Dar al-Kutub, the Egyptian National
Library, in Cairo. The sta√ in the reading room and the microfilm
service were most friendly, knowledgeable, and accommodating. I am in-
debted to them. While in Cairo, I had access to the library facilities at the
American University in Cairo thanks to the good o≈ces of Walid Kzihah and
William Sullivan. I am obliged to Jean-Claude Vatin, Alain Roussillon, and
‘Ali Adham for letting me share whatever small space was available at the
cedej o≈ces in Cairo. I would like also to thank the editorial board of the
Journal of Mediterranean Studies for allowing me to reprint a section on Frantz
Fanon in chapter 2. The paper was published in 2004 under the title ‘‘Nego-
tiating Identity in the Post-colonial Arab World: Clues from Psychoanalytic
Theory.’’
Funding for research in Cairo was provided by grants from the Near East
Studies Program, the Council on Regional Studies, and the Center for Inter-
national Studies at Princeton University. I am indebted to Professors Carl L.
Brown, Ezra Suleiman, and Henry Bienen for their interest and encourage-
ment. The Ford Foundation’s Middle East Research Competition program
provided a one-year grant for further research and writing. I am most thank-
ful to the Ford Foundation’s Cairo scientific sta√ for their support. A one-
year fellowship at Princeton’s Institute for the Transregional Study of the
Contemporary Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia allowed me to
devote precious time to rewriting and refining the manuscript. I want to take
this opportunity to thank Greg Bell, program assistant at the Transregional
Institute, for his friendship and diligent service.
I was very fortunate to have inspiring and rigorous scholars read di√erent
versions of the manuscript. I am particularly grateful to John Waterbury,
Anne Norton, and Diane Singerman for their detailed comments and pointed
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