∞. This is not to suggest that productions of Indian nationalism in relation to a
larger transnational context are new. As scholars have argued for India, as
they have elsewhere, transnational links forged through colonialism, capi-
talism, and empire have been an important context for productions of
national identity (see Niranjana 2006; Sinha 1995, 2006). However, contem-
porary processes and discourses of globalization point to highly specific
transformations in capital, labor, and commodity flows, resulting in new
kinds of state restructuring and global integration.
≤. Started in the mid-1980s under the leadership of India’s then prime minis-
ter Rajiv Gandhi, the liberalization of the Indian economy accelerated with
comprehensive reforms in 1991 during Narasimha Rao’s term as prime
minister. India signed on to World Bank and imf loans, reduced tari√s and
duties on foreign goods, liberalized the private sector, and opened up the
public sector to market forces. While globalization is also used, the more
common term, in popular and some scholarly accounts, for marking the
impact of ‘‘globalization’’ within the Indian context is liberalization, which
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