1. Th is was one of the ﬁ rst programs inspired by the popularity of American Idol,
which was rebroadcast on Ghana Tele vi sion. Numerous reality tv series show-
ing competitions to ﬁ nd musical stars emerged, including: Stars of the Future
on gtv, Icons and Mentor on tv3, and West African Idol out of Nigeria.
2. Grey, private interview, January 2005.
3. Reggie Rockstone, private interview, January 2005.
4. Translated from Akan by the author with assistance from Grey.
5. Reggie Rockstone, private interview, June 2005.
6. Mohammed Ben Abdallah, private interview, February 1999.
7. Estimates are that about 50 percent of Ghanaians are native speakers of an
Akan language and almost everyone understands some.
8. Anonymous market trader, private interview, February 1998.
9. Grey, private interview, January 2005.
10. Scooby Selah, private interview, January 2005.
11. I released a feature documentary ﬁ lm on the origins of the music, Living the
Hiplife (Th ird World Newsreel, 2007), and a second feature on Reggie’s visit to
perform for the Ghanaian community in New York, Is It Sweet: Tales of an
African Superstar in New York (Th ird World Newsreel, 2013).
12. Esi Sutherland- Addy, private interview, July 2005.
13. Th ese include Africanhiphop .com, Afropop Worldwide, Nomadic Wax,
okayafrica .com, World Hip Hop Market, Clenched Fist Productions, and
14. U.S. cultural attaché Accra, name withheld, private correspondence, Janu-
15. For more on black music and style as embodied practices that engage gen-
dered, raced, and class hierarchies in black communities, see Pough et al.
2007; Sharpley- Whiting 2007; Cooper 2004; Perry 2004; Maira 2000; Guil-
lory and Green 1998.
16. For Munn space and time are inseparable and mutually constitutive. Space-
time refers to how a cultural- symbolic system situates social actors in rela-
tion to both temporal and spatial registers. People make themselves in social
spacetime, and in the pro cess make the experiential spacetime within which
they are situated.