1 See for instance, Kevin Goldman, "Study Finds Ads Induce Few People to Buy,"
V1a11 Street Journal,
17 October 1995, Bro. See also Michael Schudson,
the Uneasy Persuasion: Its Dubious Impact on American Society
(New York: Basic
2 Jean Baudrillard argues: "Even though we may be getting better and better at
resisting advertising in the
imperative . ..
we do indeed 'believe' in advertising:
what we consume in this way is the luxury of a society that projects itself as an
agency for dispensing goods"
(The System of Objects,
trans. James Benedict [New
York: Verso, 1996], 166).
Selling Mrs. Consumer
(New York: Business Bourse, 1929), 337.
4 Jackson Lears, "The Ad Man and the Grand Inquisitor: Intimacy, Publicity, and
the Administrative State in America, 1880-1940" (paper presented at the Davis
Center Seminar, Princeton University, 30 March 1990), 5.
See Bruce Barton,
The Man Nobody Knows
(1925; reprint, Indianapolis, Ind.:
6 As a case in point, George Faulkner contended in a presentation on radio advertis-
ing that "The word showman carries an undignified, cheap connotation. It has a
vaguely semitic, Barnumish, Broadway air to it .... This impression of cheap-
ness is due to a misunderstanding ... we confuse showmanship with one of its
branches ... exploitation" (Staff Meeting Minutes, 12 August 1930, J. Walter
Thompson Archives, Duke University; hereafter cited as JWT Archives).
7 On "rainbow moods," sec Carl Naether,
Advertising to Women
(New York: Prentice
Hall, 1928), 204.
8 See my discussion of Paul K. Edwards's
The Southern Urban Negro as a Consumer
9 Chicago Tribune,
8 February 1920. Still listed as appearing in 1923 in a compilation
Ladies Home Journalheadlines
(Cutex Accounts, JWT Archives).
ro Judith Butler,
Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Perflrmative
(New York: Routledge,
1997), 134; emphasis added.
Michael Uebel, "Men in Color," in
Race and the Subject of Masculinities.
Stecopoulus and Michael Uebel (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997), 3.
12 Frank Presbrey,
The History and Development of Advertising
(Garden City, NY:
Doubleday and Doran, 1929), 613.
13 The phrase is from Stuart Ewen,
All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in
(New York: Basic Books, 1988).