Notes
Introduction
1 Ecuador is divided administratively into regions (sierra, coast, and jungle) and
provinces. Provinces are divided into cantones (cantons), which are subdivided
into parroquias (parishes), the smallest administrative unit at the state level.
In this context, parishes do not correspond to ecclesiastical units.
2 See Gustafson 2009; Postero 2007; Rappaport 2005; Speed 2008a.
3 Abercrombie 1991a; Abercrombie 1991b; Barre 1983; Botasso- Gnerre 1989;
Maria Elena García 2005; Gustafson 2009; Mattiace 2003; Pallares 2002; Pos-
tero 2007; Rappaport 1994, 2005; Sawyer 2004; and Warren 1998, among others.
4 Colloredo- Mansfeld 1999; Kearney 1996; Lagos 1994; Meisch 2002; Orlove 2002;
Weismantel 1988.
5 By modernization, I refer to state- led interventions that sought to foster na-
tional economic progress through infrastructural projects such as road con-
struction and expansion of telecommunication and sanitation systems, as well
as industrialization and agricultural mechanization.
6 Albó 1989; Pallares 2002; Postero 2007; Rappaport 1994; Sawyer 2004; Seligman
1995; Urban and Sherzer 1991; Kay Warren 1998; Yashar 2005.
7 For a more comprehensive discussion of the Ecuadorian case, see Whitten
2003.
8 See the discussion in Kay Warren 1998, 8–9.
9 Escobar and Alvarez 1992; Hale 1997; Melucci and Diani 1992.
10 Cervone 2002; Kearney 1996; Mattiace 2003; Pallares 2002; Postero 2007;
Zamosc 2004.
11 Albó 2002; Gustafson 2002; Hale 2002; Hill and Santos- Granero 2002; June
Nash 2001; Rappaport and Gow 2002; Rappaport 2007; Pallares 2002; Warren J.
2001; Warren and Jackson 2002; Kay Warren 1998; Postero and Zamosc 2004.
12 Páramo refers to moorland situated between 3,600 and 4,200 meters above sea
level, while lower land communities range from 2,800 to mid- 3,000 meters.
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