1. “Frente a la pantalla,” El Universal Gráﬁco, February 11, 1926.
2. “Frente a la pantalla.”
3. Tierney, Emilio Fernández, 6.
1. Quoted in Robert Haberman, “Bandit Colonies,” Survey, May 1, 1924, 148.
2. Haberman, “Bandit Colonies,” 148.
3. Though the term “American” refers to the entire continent, for the sake of
brevity I employ it throughout this book to refer to people or things from the United
States, as this was one of the primary ways it was used in my sources.
4. On this effort and various arguments about what aspects of the ﬁlm indus-
try’s organization and strategic planning made this possible, see Thompson, Export-
ing Entertainment; Trumpboar, Selling Hollywood to the World; De Grazia, Irresist-
ible Empire, 384–85; Jarvie, Hollywood’s Overseas Campaign. On Hollywood’s spread
into France, see Ulff- Møller, Hollywood’s “Film Wars” with France, which charts the
emergence of protective quotas. On Germany, see Saunders, Hollywood in Berlin,
which examines the German ﬁlm communities’ response to American ﬁlms. On
Latin America, see Usabel, The High Noon, which looks speciﬁcally at the activities
of United Artists from the 1920s to the 1950s.
5. For example, in July 1919 the United Shoe Machinery Company of Mexico
sponsored a reportedly well- attended showing at the Cine Santa María la Redonda
in Mexico City of a sponsored ﬁlm about shoe manufacturing in the United States
(“Película interesante y instructiva,” Excélsior [hereafter ex], July 2, 1919). The distri-
bution and reception of nontheatrical fare in Mexico during this period begs for its
own extensive study.
6. U.S. ﬁlm exports to Mexico increased from 197,835 feet ﬁscal year 1913 to 3.3
million feet ﬁscal year 1922 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Latin American Divi-
sion, U.S. Trade with Latin America in 1922, 34).
7. Amador and Ayala Blanco, Cartelera cinematográﬁca, 1920–1929, 465–69.
8. García Riera, Historia documental del cine mexicano, 1:11.
9. On El automóvil gris, see Ramírez Berg, “El automóvil gris.” On Mimí Derba,