1991 Collapse of Siad Barre’s government.
1991–93 Violence against civilians peaks in Jubba Valley region and
villagers from Banta flee.
1992 Launch of Operation Restore Hope, a multinational
humanitarian military intervention, followed in 1993 by
unosom, a U.S.- led un-backed intervention.
1993 Black Hawk Down incident in Mogadishu and conclusion of
1995 Some refugees in Dadaab return to Jubba Valley but many
flee again for Kenyan refugee camps because violence is still
1994–97 Somali Bantu refugees in Dadaab attempt to negotiate
resettlement in Tanzania and Mozambique.
1999 United States agrees to accept 12,000 Somali Bantus for
resettlement as “persecuted minorities.”
2001 Reveriﬁcation in Dadaab of Somali Bantu names on
Mozambique list for U.S. p2 resettlement.
Somali refugees already resettled in United States begin
moving to Lewiston.
Lewiston and Portland jointly receive an Unanticipated
Arrivals grant (2001–5) from U.S. Oﬃce of Refugee
TIMELINE OF EVENTS