NOTES
Introduction
1. Besteman 1999b; Besteman and Cassanelli 2000.
2. Here and throughout the book I use pseudonyms for those who are not public
figures.
3. Anderson 2009; bbc News 2008; Foreign Policy 2008, 2009; Menkhaus 2008;
Refugees International 2011. See also Fergusson 2013; Garvelink and Tahir 2011.
4. See Besteman 1994, 1996a, 1996b, 1999b and Besteman and Cassanelli 2000, where
Banta is called Loc.
5. Van Lehman and Eno 2002.
6. Huisman 2011: n.p.
7. Hudson 2006.
8. Nadeau 2005.
9. Nadeau 2011.
10. Nyers 2006.
11. The unhcr put the number of forcibly displaced people at 43 million in 2014,
27 million of whom were displaced by conflict or catastrophe within their home
countries.
12. Fassin and Rechtman 2009: 253.
13. Bauman 2004; see also Agamben 1995; Horst 2006; Malkki 1995b, 2002; Nyers
2006.
14. Huntington 1993, 2004; Kaplan 1994. Thanks to Kristin Koptiuch for this insight.
1. Becoming Refugees
1. An audio clip of Cali reciting one of his poems is accessible at “Historical Audio
Links,” The Somali Bantu Experience, http:// web . colby . edu / somali - bantu / images
- and - audio / audio / .
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