1 With regard to unicentrism in black movements, Gilroy states, ‘‘We have seen
that the authoritarian and proto-fascist formations of twentieth-century black
political culture have often been animated by an intense desire to recover the lost
glories of the African past. The desire to restore that departed greatness has not
always been matched by an equivalent enthusiasm to remedy the plight of Africa
in the present’’ (2000, 323).
2 The interviews sought to ﬁrst identify personal information such as profession
and age and then to investigate the tourists’ interest in Bahia: what they were
looking for, if they were able to ﬁnd what they were looking for; and in which
places they believed they would ﬁnd what they were looking for.
3 The Portuguese term mestiço shares similarities with the Spanish term mestizo—
since both indicate racial mixture. However, there are also several di√erences
between the two. First, the ideologies of mestizaje in Spanish America, and mes-
tiçagem in Brazil, are quite distinct from country to country. Second, while mes-
tizo usually refers to a mix between a white and an indigenous partner, mestiço in
Brazil almost always refers to a racial mixture that includes a black component,
even though the role played by blackness has frequently been secondary.
4 Kamel (2006, 61) explains that the di√erences between blacks and whites are
grounded on economic reasons: ‘‘Blacks and browns are the majority among the
poor because our economic system has always promoted the concentration of
income: those who were poor (slaves, by deﬁnition, had no property) have been
doomed to continue poor.’’ Similarly, Kamel contends, ‘‘The social mechanisms
of exclusion have as victims the poor, be they white, black, brown, yellow or
indigenous. And the main mechanism of reproduction of poverty is the low
quality of our public education’’ (66). Kamel clearly states, ‘‘Our problem is
poverty and not a supposed racial inequality’’ (71).
5 Kamel explains that if racism exists in Brazil, it is because of individual attitudes:
‘‘Where there are men gathered, there are also all kinds of feelings, including the
worst kind’’ (2006, 20). Because Kamel explains all inequalities on the basis of
poverty and rebu√s the role played by racism in the daily life of individuals, he