index
A≈rmative action, 17
Afoxés, 45, 118, 127
Africa, 1; African diaspora and, 1–2,
23–33; anticolonial struggles in, 34;
Bahia and, 8, 30, 33–34, 47–48; black
culture and, 24–25, 32–33; black
motherhood and, 29–31, 35; blocos
afro and, 32–40, 43–44, 91–92; Egypt
and, 25; essentialism and, 31; as
imagined community, 1–2, 24–25,
27, 32, 34, 36–38; invented traditions
and, 28–29, 31–32, 38, 44, 72; land
in, 44; motherland vs. fatherland, 29–
30; music and, 33–34, 40–41, 43, 45,
91–92; pan-Africanism, 75–76; para-
disiacal vs. impoverished, 36–37;
production of, 29–32, 36; religious-
based organizations and, 33, 72–73;
savagery of, 32; as source of all
knowledge, 35, 42; tribal Africa, 36–
38, 42; United States and, 26, 43; as
Western construction, 31
África: Ventre Fértil do Mundo (Africa:
The World’s Fertile Womb, text-
book), 29
African Americans, 14, 28–29, 86–87,
230 n. 38
African American tourists and tourism,
7–8, 24, 34, 50–58, 90, 230 n. 35, 230
n. 37; afro objects and, 124
African diaspora, 8, 79, 101, 230 n. 39;
Africa and, 1–2, 23–33; as African na-
tion, 44; Caribbean and, 30, 43; Civil
Rights movement and, 45; as expatri-
ate minority communities, 27–28; in-
ternational black culture in, 26, 35,
45–46, 80–81; motherland vs. father-
land and, 29–30, 40; pan-Africanism
and, 25, 31; transnational alliances of,
25–26, 28; Jewish diaspora vs., 27
Africanisms, 4, 23, 33, 37, 45; elder’s
blessings as, 38–39. See also Traditions
Africanness, 1, 31, 45, 229 n. 28, 229
n. 33; African American’s disconnect
from, 86–87; afro-aesthetics and,
121–26; blocos afros and, 49, 51–52,
78, 81, 83–87, 92–95, 116–17; in Car-
naval, 214–15; colorful fabrics and,
88; commodified, 72, 87–88, 184;
ethnic symbols and, 83–88; Ilê Aiyê
and, 29, 34–35, 85, 91–95; music
and, 86–87, 90, 92–94; pan-
Africanism and, 25
Afro-aesthetics, 26, 33, 102, 128–30,
139–45; in Bahia, 125–26; blackness
and, 142–43; dreadlocks as, 130; nor-
mativity of, 142–45; protesting rac-
ism and, 126; self-esteem and, 127–
28, 131–34, 132, 139; tourism and,
124–26
Afro-Brazilian cuisine, 84, 185, 187–89,
237 n. 10
Afro-labeling, 122
Afro objects, 26, 46, 84–85, 128, 195–
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