his book is about the tensions that underscore what are other-
felt as mundane encounters, looking specifically at experi-
ences of belonging and exclusion in Portugal from the mid-1990s
through the early 2000s. I consider why the conditions of Portu-
gal’s accession to the European Economic Community (eec) in
1986 and its economic integration into the European Union (eu)
in 1996 fundamentally changed the daily encounter between Afri-
can migrants and Portuguese citizens. Where this encounter once
revolved around the legacy of the colonial past, by the end of the
century the organizing tension had shifted to a new concept of
citizenship that was associated with requirements for eu member-
ship. Accordingly, the process of accession and economic integra-
tion involved new forms of social regulation that mutually altered
how citizens and migrants experienced their historic ‘‘likeness’’
and ‘‘difference.’’
Portugal had five colonies in Africa—Angola, Mozambique, São
Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, and Cape Verde—that it main-
tained through the early to mid-1970s. Colonial subjects in the first
four were indígenas, or indigenous subjects, while Cape Verdeans
legally held the status of Portuguese citizen. These legal differ-
ences were connected to differing labor regimes: indígenas were
required by law to work under contract (through 1959), while
Cape Verdeans in theory bore the legal right to work for them-
selves. The focus of this book is on Cape Verdeans, yet in the latter
chapters their historic distinctiveness becomes blurry, insignificant
even, as they come to occupy the same migrant status as those
once legally categorized as indígenas in former Portuguese Africa.
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