1. Peixeiras are also called varinas. Varina is normed as the more appropriate or
respectable term, with peixeira making for a more taboo label. Yet the Cape
Verdean women I worked with self-identiﬁed as peixeiras; I never heard them
mention the word varina, a term historically ascribed to Portuguese women
who were also called peixeiras. Notably, Cape Verdean women’s loyal cus-
tomers also referred to them as peixeiras.
2. I have highlighted ‘‘glance’’ because I want to address the tension between
analyzing ‘‘race’’ as a social construction and the process by which the analyst
comes to identify subjects in racially meaningful ways through ‘‘looking.’’ When
subjects do not self-identify, the ethnographic process of racially labeling sub-
jects reproduces race as determined and truthful. Thus I single out ‘‘glance’’ to
remain mindful of the danger in this process. As the text unravels I maintain
these categories, which appear ﬁrst as ethnographic observations, because they
were brokered by the individuals themselves in interaction.
3. In Buddha is Hiding, Aihwa Ong has worked out a compelling argument that
likewise observes a productive relationship between the effects of the polariza-
tion of raced distinctions and the practice of citizenship as a set of ofﬁcially
sanctioned social values. My argument also considers the effects of such polar-
ization, but for different reasons. Here, polarization refers to the process where
miscegenation is eclipsed from the social imaginary, severing imaginaries of
contact tied to blood.
4. I want to thank Andrea Muehlebach for helping me think through questions of
citizenship in the ways suggested in this section.
5. Susan Gal (2002, 2005) has stressed the problem of analyzing the world as if the
categories ‘‘public’’ and ‘‘private’’ constituted separate domains of ﬁxed knowl-
edge. Arguing that the public and the private represent a single practice or
institution in itself, one made legible through the contrastive and referential
potential embedded in each, Gal’s point is that we need to be attentive to what