his work is the product of encounters I have had with numerous
and colleagues. I am indebted to the members of my
doctoral committee—Marcyliena Morgan, Sondra Hale, Karen
Brodkin, and Valerie Smith—for their generous and supportive
mentorship. I am also honored to have been a member of dire
(Discourse, Identity, Representation, Ethics—or Ethnicity; we
never resolved what the E stood for). dire was a collective at
ucla composed of the following graduate students in the mid-
1990s: Patricia Baquedano-Lopes, Lanita Jacobs Huey, Soyoun
Kim, Dionne Bennet, Adrienne Lo, Sepa Sete, and me.
In Portugal I worked with two research assistants whose sup-
port and brilliance facilitated my time in the archives and in the
field. Carlos Alberto de Jesus Alvês has been working with me in
Lisbon for over seven years. Carlos is a historian of Angola with an
incredibly sharp eye for the small details. I am indebted to his
commitment to my research. I also want to thank my dear friend
and genius assistant, Antonio Tomás. His talent and uncondi-
tional support have been a real gift.
My colleagues in Lisbon—Cristiana Bastos, João Vasconcelos,
João de Pina Cabral, Jorge Varanda, and especially Miguel Vale de
Almeida—make me believe that business should be mixed with
pleasure. A wonderful blend of friendship and rigorous intellec-
tual support define my relationship with each of these individuals.
Thank you. I also want to send a special thanks to Marilia Santos,
Annabelle Barnes, Mickey Traneaus, Howard Sonenklar, Cata-
rina Brandão, Marc Humpich, Vera Melo, Maria Leão, Nathalie
Decrette, and Danis Bois. And I am extremely grateful to my dear
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