Afterword
II
svetaeva was dead, her remote grave unmarked. Efron was shot in
October 1941; Mur, drafted in February 1944, was killed in June
the same year. For fifteen years Tsvetaeva's voice would be silenced
in the Soviet Union. Abroad, she was considered an esoteric poet, appreci-
ated by only a few.
With Stalin's death and Khrushchev's "thaw," Tsvetaeva's daughter Ariadna
was rehabilitated in 1955 after seventeen years in the Gulag and in exile
in Siberia. She returned to Moscow and then settled in Tarusa, where her
mother had spent so many childhood summers. She devoted the years until
her death in 1975 to the rehabilitation of her father, the collecting and publi-
cation of her mother's work, and the establishment of an archive to be closed
until the year
2000.
Anastasiya, a prisoner since 1939, was not released until
1959. Both women wrote about Tsvetaeva's past; each wanted to be regarded
as her champion. In the early sixties Anastasiya journeyed to Yelabuga and,
unable to find the exact location of her sister's grave, arranged for a cross at
an approximate site. A few years later the Union of Writers replaced the cross
with a simple monument. Anastasiya died in September 1993, aged ninety-
nine.
In 1956, in the Soviet anthology Literary Moscow no. 2, Ehrenburg introduced
a number of Tsvetaeva's poems with a short essay about her importance.
Two more anthologies, in 1956 and 1957, included her poems, but the thaw
did not last long and Tsvetaeva found her place in samizdat, the flourishing
underground circulation of forbidden works, where, according to Karlinsky,
she became the most popular poet of Soviet youth in the sixties and seventies.
In 1961 a slim volume of Tsvetaeva's selected works was published, fo1-
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