N o t e s
1. For details on the diﬀerent rituals that constitute Bengali weddings, see chapter 3.
2. Hobsbawm and Ranger, The Invention of Tradition, 2.
3. Rudolph and Rudolph,
The Modernity of Tradition.
4. The family, as many historians have demonstrated in their analyses of households
in the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, was “a very novel space, and
no archaic sanctuary.” See Sumit Guha, “The Family Feud as Political Resource,”
in I. Chatterjee, ed., Unfamiliar Relations: Family and History in South Asia, 74–94.
Ruby Lal’s book on the Mughal haram during the reigns of the ﬁrst three emperors
conﬁrms the impression of familial relations spilling over into and influencing state
matters. Lal, Domesticity and Power, 20–24.
5. Dumont, “Marriage in India,” parts 1 and 2; I. P. Desai, “The Joint Family in India”;
I. P. Desai, “Symposium on Caste and Joint Family”; Shah, The Family in India;
Kapadia, Hindu Kinship; Kapadia, “Changing Patterns of Hindu Marriage and
Family,” parts 1, 2, 3; Kapadia, “The Family in Transition”; Karve, Kinship Organiza-
tion in India; Inden and Nicholas, Kinship in Bengali Culture; Cohn, “The Changing
Status of a Depressed Class”; Derrett, “The History of the Juridical Framework of
the Joint Hindu Family”; Derrett, “Law and the Predicament of the Hindu Joint
6. Sudhir Kakar, “Match Fixing,”
India Today Exclusive Survey on Sex and Marriage,
5 November 2007, 87–88. Kakar’s insightful description of arranged marriage in
present-day India ﬁts with the understanding of the institution in this book. How-
ever, at the beginning of the twentieth century there would be fewer instances of
women “unconsciously” falling in love as their freedom of movement was a lot more
restricted than at present. It is interesting and important to note that the survey
conducted by India Today and A. C. Nielson-ORG-MARG in several cities of India