Chronology of Hawaiian Po liti cal History, Postcontact
1778 Captain James Cook lands in the Hawaiian Islands.
March 31, 1820 First American missionaries arrive in Hawai‘i.
November 28, 1843 Great Britain and France recognize Hawai‘i’s in de pen dence.
1873 Major General J. M. Schoﬁeld and Brigadier General B. S.
Alexander visit Hawai‘i under secret instructions from the
U.S. secretary of war to examine the ports of the Hawaiian
Islands for their strategic value.
1875 The ﬁrst Reciprocity Treaty between the U.S. and the Hawai-
ian Kingdom (King Kalakaua) is ratiﬁed, giving mutual free
trade rights (takes eﬀect 1876).
July 7, 1887 The “Bayonet Constitution” is forced on King Kalakaua by
a mostly white co ali tion of business interests, the Hawai-
ian League, or “Annexation Club.” The Reciprocity Treaty is
extended, giving the United States exclusive naval rights to
January 17, 1893 Queen Lili‘uokalani is deposed by a “Committee of Safety,”
made up of mission and business interests with support of
U.S. Marines and diplomatic representative. A “provisional
government” is established.
December 18, 1893 President Cleveland asks Congress to restore Queen
Lili‘uokalani to the throne.
July 4, 1894 Republic of Hawai‘i declared by provisional government.
July 7, 1898 Hawai‘i is annexed to the United States by congressional