appendix 3
Chronology of Internment of Japa nese Americans
and Japa nese Residents
December 9, 1941 Sand Island detention camp opened in Honolulu to pro-
cess internees from Hawai‘i. With many sent to mainland
camps, an estimated 1,440 Japa nese, Germans, and Ital-
ians would be interned at five locations in the Hawaiian
February 19, 1942 President Roo se velt signs Executive Order No. 9066, au-
thorizing secretary of war to establish “military areas” and
exclude “any or all persons” necessary.
August 7, 1942 Western Defense Commander announces the completion
of removal of more than 120,000 Japa nese Americans from
their homes.
March 1, 1943 Sand Island camp, Hawai‘i, is closed and remaining internees
transferred to the new 160- acre Honouliuli Internment
Camp, where between twelve hundred and fourteen hundred
local Japa nese would be interned with about one thousand
family members.
December 17, 1944 The war department announces revocation of West Coast
mass exclusion orders, effective January 2, 1945.
December 18, 1944 In Korematsu v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court rules
that compulsory exclusion is justified during circumstances
of “emergency and peril,” upholding conviction of Korematsu
for resisting internment.
July 2, 1948 Evacuation Claims Act passed, giving internees until January 3,
1950, to file claims against the government for damages or
loss of property.
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